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Polska armenia na zywo

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Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".

The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.

The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.

The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.

Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament.

Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash.

On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups.

In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.

The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".

At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.

Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true.

A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup.

This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov.

Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.

Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day.

Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions.

On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.

The elimination of the United States in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other competitions of that name, see World Cup disambiguation. For the video game, see FIFA Not a FIFA member.

Bronnitsy , Moscow Oblast Australia: Kazan , Republic of Tatarstan Belgium: Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast [78] Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg [79] France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: Vatutinki , Moscow [80] Iceland: Gelendzhik , Krasnodar Krai Iran: Bakovka, Moscow Oblast Japan: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan Mexico: Khimki , Moscow Oblast Morocco: Voronezh , Voronezh Oblast Nigeria: Yessentuki , Stavropol Krai Panama: Saransk , Republic of Mordovia Peru: Sochi, Krasnodar Krai Portugal: Ramenskoye , Moscow Oblast Russia: Khimki, Moscow Oblast Saudi Arabia: Kaluga , Kaluga Oblast Serbia: Svetlogorsk , Kaliningrad Oblast South Korea: Krasnodar , Krasnodar Krai Sweden: Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai Switzerland: Togliatti , Samara Oblast Tunisia: Pervomayskoye, Moscow Oblast Uruguay: Bor , Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

Luzhniki Stadium , Moscow. Central Stadium , Yekaterinburg. Krestovsky Stadium , Saint Petersburg. Rostov Arena , Rostov-on-Don.

Cosmos Arena , Samara. Volgograd Arena , Volgograd. Fisht Olympic Stadium , Sochi. Mark Geiger United States.

Kazan Arena , Kazan. Mordovia Arena , Saransk. Kaliningrad Stadium , Kaliningrad. Antonio Mateu Lahoz Spain. Otkritie Arena , Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod Stadium , Nizhny Novgorod.

Matthew Conger New Zealand. Joel Aguilar El Salvador. Jair Marrufo United States. Smolov Ignashevich Golovin Cheryshev. Cuadrado Muriel Uribe Bacca.

Kane Rashford Henderson Trippier Dier. Smolov Dzagoev Fernandes Ignashevich Kuzyayev. Live It Up Nicky Jam song. Association football portal Russia portal s portal.

However FIFA has discussed abolishing the competition. Harry Kane 6 goals. Mehdi Abid Charef Algeria. Bamlak Tessema Weyesa Ethiopia.

Corey Rockwell United States. Ricardo Montero Costa Rica. Bertrand Brial New Caledonia. Otkritie Arena Spartak Stadium.

Krestovsky Stadium Saint Petersburg Stadium. In addition, the police and other agencies have been steadily replacing and modernising their fleets of vehicles.

Poland's economy is considered to be one of the more resilient of the post-Communist countries and is one of the fastest growing within the EU.

It is an example of the transition from a centrally planned to a primarily market-based economy. The country's most successful exports include machinery, furniture, food products, clothing, shoes and cosmetics.

The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed the development of the private sector.

Also, several consumer rights organizations have become active in the country. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" such as coal, steel, rail transport and energy has been continuing since The Polish banking sector is the largest in the Central and Eastern European region, [] with They are regulated by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority.

During the transformation to a market-oriented economy, the government privatized several banks, recapitalized the rest, and introduced legal reforms that made the sector more competitive.

This has attracted a significant number of strategic foreign investors ICFI. Poland's banking sector has approximately 5 national banks, a network of nearly cooperative banks and 18 branches of foreign-owned banks.

Poland has a large number of private farms in its agricultural sector, with the potential to become a leading producer of food in the European Union.

The biggest money-makers abroad include smoked and fresh fish, fine chocolate, and dairy products, meats and specialty breads, [] with the exchange rate conducive to export growth.

Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment. Since the gradual opening of the European Union labor market from , Poland has had mass emigration of over 2.

Products and goods manufactured in Poland include: Poland is also one of the world's biggest producers of copper , silver and coal , as well as potatoes , rye , rapeseed , cabbage , apples , strawberries and ribes.

Poland is recognised as a regional economic leader within Central Europe, with nearly 40 percent of the biggest companies in the region by revenues as well as a high globalisation rate.

The economic transition in has resulted in a dynamic increase in the number and value of investments conducted by Polish corporations abroad.

Over a quarter of these companies have participated in a foreign project or joint venture , and 72 percent decided to continue foreign expansion.

According to reports made by the National Bank of Poland , the value of Polish foreign direct investments reached almost billion PLN at the end of The Central Statistical Office estimated that in there were around 1, Polish corporations with interests in 3, foreign entities.

Poland experienced an increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style.

The Polish capital Warsaw and its historical Old Town were entirely reconstructed after wartime destruction.

Poland's main tourist offerings include outdoor activities such as skiing, sailing, mountain hiking and climbing, as well as agrotourism, sightseeing historical monuments.

The Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains lie in the extreme south-east. The electricity generation sector in Poland is largely fossil-fuel —based.

Many power plants nationwide use Poland's position as a major European exporter of coal to their advantage by continuing to use coal as the primary raw material in production of their energy.

In , Poland scored 48 out of states in the Energy Sustainability Index. All three of these companies are key constituents of the Warsaw Stock Exchange 's lead economic indexes.

Renewable forms of energy account for a smaller proportion of Poland's full energy generation capacity. This is to be achieved mainly through the construction of wind farms and a number of hydroelectric stations.

Poland has around ,,, m 3 of proven natural gas reserves and around 96,, barrels of proven oil reserves. However, the small amounts of fossil fuels naturally occurring in Poland is insufficient to satisfy the full energy consumption needs of the population.

Therefore, the country is a net importer of oil and natural gas. Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail , road , marine shipping and air travel.

Positioned in Central Europe with its eastern and part of its northeastern border constituting the longest land border of the Schengen Area with the rest of Northern and Central Europe.

Since joining the EU in May , Poland has invested large amounts of public funds into modernization projects of its transport networks.

The country now has a developing network of highways , composed of express roads and motorways such as A1 , A2 , A4 , A6 , A8 , A In addition to these newly built roads, many local and regional roads are being fixed as part of a national programme to rebuild all roads in Poland.

Polish authorities maintain a program of improving operating speeds across the entire Polish rail network. Additionally, in December , Poland began to implement high—speed rail routes connecting major Polish cities.

The Polish government has revealed that it intends to connect all major cities to a future high-speed rail network by Most interregional connections rail routes in Poland is operated by PKP Intercity , whilst regional trains are run by a number of operators, the largest of which is Przewozy Regionalne.

The air and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. LOT is the 28th largest European airline and the world's 12th oldest still in operation , established in from a merger of Aerolloyd and Aero Poland has begun preparations for a construction that can handle million passengers of the Central Communication Port.

Over the course of history, the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics.

Copernicus' achievements and discoveries are considered the basis of Polish culture and cultural identity. Poland's tertiary education institutions; traditional universities , as well as technical, medical, and economic institutions, employ around 61, researchers and members of staff.

There are around research and development institutes, with about 10, researchers. In total, there are around 91, scientists in Poland today. In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing centre of mathematics.

Other notable scientists from Poland include: Over 40 research and development centers and 4, researchers make Poland the biggest research and development hub in Central and Eastern Europe.

The service was dissolved during the foreign partitions in the 18th century. After regaining independence in , Poland saw the rapid development of the postal system as new services were introduced including money transfers , payment of pensions, delivery of magazines, and air mail.

During wars and national uprisings communication was provided mainly through the military authorities. At present, the service is a modern state-owned company that provides a number of standard and express delivery as well as home-delivery services.

With an estimated number of around 83, employees , [] Poczta Polska also has a personal tracking system for parcels. In the company adopted a strategy that assumes increasing revenues to 6.

Poland, with its 38,, inhabitants, has the eighth-largest population in Europe and the sixth-largest in the European Union.

It has a population density of inhabitants per square kilometer per square mile. In recent years, Poland's population has decreased due to an increase in emigration and a decline in the birth rate.

Since Poland's accession to the European Union on 1 May , a significant number of Poles have emigrated , primarily to the United Kingdom , Germany and Ireland in search of better work opportunities abroad.

The total fertility rate TFR in Poland was estimated in at 1. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages. It is one of the official languages of the European Union.

Until recent decades Russian was commonly learned as a second language, but after the Revolutions of has been replaced by English as the most common second language studied and spoken.

According to the Act of 6 January on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages , [] 16 other languages have officially recognized status of minority languages: Jewish and Romani minorities each have 2 minority languages recognized.

Languages having the status of ethnic minority's language are Karaim , Rusyn called Lemko in Poland and Tatar.

Also, official recognition is granted to two Romani languages: Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma. Official recognition of a language provides certain rights under conditions prescribed by the law: The Poles are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to Poland, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, religion and are native speakers of the Polish language, along with its various dialects.

The formation of the Polish identity and ethnicity can be traced to the 10th century when Duke Mieszko I politically unified the Slavic tribes of Polans , Mazovians , Slezans , Vistulans , Pomeranians , Lendians and others, [] [] which inhabited the area of central Europe between the Oder River in the west and the Bug River in the east, and between the Carpathian and Sudetes mountains in the south and the Baltic sea in the north, and then by accepting Christianity as the official state religion.

Following the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in , the country over the next two centuries contained many languages, cultures and religions.

When Poland regained its independence in , Poles constituted the majority of the population in the country, during the interwar period , with sizable Ukrainian, Belarusian, Jewish and German minorities.

Today, Poland is primarily inhabited by ethnic Poles. In the census , 37,, Other identities were reported by 88, people 0.

Since then, Poland has been a predominantly Catholic nation, however throughout its history, religious tolerance was an important part of the political culture.

In , the Statute of Kalisz , also known as a Charter of Jewish Liberties, granted Jews living in the Polish lands unprecedented legal rights not found anywhere in Europe.

Then in , the Warsaw Confederation marked the formal beginning of extensive religious freedoms granted to all faiths in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The act was not imposed by a king or consequence of war, but rather resulted from the actions of members of the Polish-Lithuanian society.

It was also influenced by the events of the French St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre , which prompted the Polish-Lithuanian nobility to see that no monarch would ever be able to carry out such reprehensible atrocities in Poland.

Also, in the 16th century, Anabaptists from the Netherlands and Germany settled in Poland—after being persecuted in Western Europe—and became known as the Vistula delta Mennonites.

There are also several thousand neopagans, some of whom are members of the Native Polish Church. He is the only Polish Pope to date. Freedom of religion is now guaranteed by the statute of the Polish Constitution, [] enabling the emergence of additional denominations.

Orthodox pilgrims visit Mountain Grabarka near Grabarka-Klasztor. Poland's healthcare system is based on an all-inclusive insurance system.

State subsidised healthcare is available to all Polish citizens who are covered by this general health insurance program.

However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes exist nationwide. All medical service providers and hospitals in Poland are subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Health , which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.

In addition to these roles, the ministry is tasked with the maintenance of standards of hygiene and patient-care.

Hospitals in Poland are organised according to the regional administrative structure, resultantly most towns have their own hospital Szpital Miejski.

In , the Polish health-care industry experienced further transformation. Hospitals were given priority for refurbishment where necessary.

In , the average life expectancy at birth was The Commission of National Education Komisja Edukacji Narodowej established in , was the world's first state ministry of education.

It is compulsory that children participate in one year of formal education before entering the 1st class at no later than 7 years of age. Corporal punishment of children in schools is officially prohibited since before the partitions and criminalised since in schools as well as at home.

At the end of the 6th class when students are 13, students take a compulsory exam that will determine their acceptance and transition into a specific lower secondary school gimnazjum —middle school or junior high.

They will attend this school for three years during classes 7, 8, and 9. Students then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend.

There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum.

In Poland, there are university-level institutions for the pursuit of higher education. The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1,year history.

With origins in the culture of the Proto-Slavs , over time Polish culture has been profoundly influenced by its interweaving ties with the Germanic , Latinate and Byzantine worlds as well as in continual dialog with the many other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity.

These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances. Artists from Poland, including famous musicians like Chopin , Rubinstein , Paderewski or Penderecki and traditional, regionalized folk composers , create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as sung poetry and disco polo.

As of [update] , Poland is one of the few countries in Europe where rock and hip hop dominate over pop music, while all kinds of alternative music genres are encouraged.

Other early compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and God Is Born a coronation polonaise for Polish kings by an unknown composer , may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Nicholas of Radom , was born and lived in the 15th century.

Most of the compositions written were either liturgical music , or secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments.

At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise. In the 19th century the most popular composers were: Alexandre Tansman lived in Paris but had strong connections with Poland.

Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.

All of Chopin's works involve the piano and are technically demanding, emphasising nuance and expressive depth.

It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century. Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of Zakopane.

Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.

Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.

Since the fall of communism throughout Europe, Poland has become a major venue for large-scale music festivals, chief among which are the Open'er Festival , Opole Festival and Sopot Festival.

Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.

Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad.

Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme.

Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.

Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.

Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St.

History has not been kind to Poland's architectural monuments. Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.

The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.

Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.

Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.

These traditional construction methods were utilized all the way up to the start of the 20th century, and gradually faded in the first decades when Poland's population experienced a demographic shift to urban dwelling away form the countryside.

The earliest Polish literature dates back to the 12th century, [] when Poland's official language was Latin. Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.

The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories. The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.

The sentence was allegedly uttered almost a hundred years earlier by a Bohemian settler, who expressed pity for his spouse's duty of grinding by the quern-stone.

Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.

Haller's Calendarium cracoviense , an astronomical wall calendar from , is Poland's oldest surviving print. A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.

Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.

Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.

The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.

Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television.

In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope. This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view.

Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality. Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period.

The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri. During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland.

Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.

In the government established ' Film Polski ', a state-run film production and distribution organization, with director Aleksander Ford as the head of the company.

Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels.

TVP is Poland's public broadcasting corporation; about a third of its income comes from a broadcast receiver licence , while the rest is made through revenue from commercials and sponsorships.

Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country.

Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.

Judgment , Observer , Layers of Fear and Cyberpunk Polish cuisine has evolved over the centuries to become very eclectic due to Poland's history.

Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian [] as well as Jewish , [] Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian , [] French and Italian culinary traditions.

Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety.

The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. The world's first written mention of vodka originates from Poland.

Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.

Volleyball and Association football are among the country's most popular sports, with a rich history of international competitions.

The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.

The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in The Polish men's national volleyball team is ranked as 3rd in the world.

He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars. Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider.

The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland. The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway, [] has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.

Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.

Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world.

Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.

Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.

Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.

This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time.

The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles. Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress.

The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.

Established in , the retail store Reserved is Poland's best clothing store chain, operating over 1, retail shops in 19 countries.

In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.

This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.

In , Faktorowicz invented the conjoined word "make-up" based on the verb phrase "to make up" one's face, which is now used as an alternative for "cosmetics".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation.

For other uses, see Poland disambiguation. Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union.

Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland. Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland.

Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora. List of cities and towns in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland.

Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism. Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland.

Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count. Zaloga and Richard Hook write that "by the war's end the Polish Army was the fourth largest contingent of the Allied coalition after the armed forces of the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom".

Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.

Throughout the war, Poland's position varied from the 2nd biggest Ally after the fall of France , when Polish army outnumbered the French to perhaps the 5th at the end of it after the US, Soviet Union, China and Britain.

The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished. Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.

Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe.

After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly. The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance.

Number and demographical-social structure. Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. Retrieved 31 May The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism.

Retrieved 9 September — via Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 12 August Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in As of December 31".

Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 15 September United Nations Development Programme.

A Concise History of Poland First ed. A History , Pimlico , p. Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

The price of freedom: Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 14 April — via Multishoring. Stephan Faris 27 November Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 6 February Do Rzeczy in Polish.

Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 26 October Prazmowska 13 July A History of Poland. Central European University Press, pp.

The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age. East European Monographs, The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.

A History of East European Jews. Central European University Press. Timelines of World History. In Frucht, Richard C. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture.

Retrieved 8 April At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.

Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Knoll 15 March Political Realities and Social Constrains.

In Howard Louthan; Gary B. Negotiating Religious Difference in Central Europe, — Martin's Press, pages.

A Concise History of Poland. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 June Poland and its fate, to ; p. Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Poland and the Poles in the Second World War".

Zaloga; Richard Hook 21 January The Polish Army — Retrieved 6 March — via Google Books. Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Eastern Europe to A Question of Honor.

Grenkevich in The Soviet Partisan Movement, — A Critical Historiographical Analysis, p. Retrieved 1 March The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million.

Current estimate is roughly 2,, victims of German occupation. Polskie straty to 76— tys. Institute of National Remembrance. Poland in the geographical centre of Europe.

Archived from the original PDF on Polish Academy of Sciences. Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, PWN Encyklopedia in Polish.

Retrieved 11 July From Solidarity to Sell-Out: The Restoration of Capitalism in Poland. Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 28 July Warsaw, 19 September Conservatives secure decisive win".

The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, — Commonwealth became the breadbasket of Western Europe, wrote Timothy Snyder, thanks to the presence of fertile southeastern regions of Podolia and east Galicia.

Retrieved 1 January Poland is home to 9, lakes. Finland is the only European nation with a higher density of lakes than Poland.

Jewish Poland — legends of Origin: Ethnopoetics and Legendary Chronicles. Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 23 November Polska Poland's Official Travel Website.

Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 4 May World production and gross domestic production of main pork-producing or exporting countries.

Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 8 February A real kingdom of birds is the Biebrza Basin, its wildlife making it one of the most unique areas in Poland.

Oficyna In Puls; Retrieved 4 February Historia Polski, — [ History of Poland, — ] in Polish. Centrum Praw Kobiet in Polish. Archived from the original on 2 March Archived from the original on 30 December Trafficking of Women World map PNG file.

Best results worldwide for two locations both in Europe including Poland. Belarus mistreats its Polish minority". Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 12 December Military Modernization Program Underfunded".

Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 25 April Ekonomia Unii Europejskiej Internet Archive.

Most important importers of Poland's exports, graph. Banking Sector in Poland Internet Archive.

Retrieved 9 Xm com A song about tolerance, hope and love ang. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defensive nature as that of its Casino en ligne sans depot partners. Best of the Best: Commonwealth became the breadbasket of Western Europe, wrote Timothy Snyder, thanks to the presence of fertile southeastern regions of Podolia and east Galicia. In Frucht, Richard C. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the largest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. Links to related articles. Ministerstwo Rozwoju Regionalnego, Jej reprezentantami byli m. Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan Mexico:

armenia na zywo polska -

Durch die Nutzung eines komplexen Algorithmus ermöglichen wir dir einen Einblick in den Verlauf des Spiels. Wird verlinkt mit den Rumänien vs. Jest najlepszy w historii klubu. Inna sparawa, ze grubo przed Polska jest Cape Verde Islands gdziekolwiek to jest i prosze nie tlumaczcie mi ze na Atlantyku i pare innych krajow, gdzie pilka nozna jest raczej egzotyczna atrakcja niz sportem narodowym. Drugi gol Bartosza Kapustki. Juventus Man Utd 1 2. Wir bieten hier kein TV-Programm an, wenn du dieses Spiel auf deinem Fernseher ansehen möchtest, findest du es wahrscheinlich auf den bekannteren Sendern wie Sky Sport, Sport1, Eurosport etc. Durch die Nutzung eines komplexen Algorithmus ermöglichen wir dir einen Einblick in den Verlauf des Spiels. Walka o "nowego Pirlo". Najnowsze Najstarsze Najlepsze Najbardziej kontrowersyjne ptasior86 Beachte jedoch, dass die geistigen Eigentumsrechte dieser Events normalerweise abhängig vom jeweiligen Land sind und du daher, in Abhängigkeit deines Standortes, einige Übertragungen auf Grund solcher Restriktionen nicht sehen kannst. Wir bieten hier kein TV-Programm an, wenn du dieses Spiel auf deinem Fernseher ansehen möchtest, findest du es wahrscheinlich auf den bekannteren Sendern wie Sky Sport, Sport1, Eurosport etc. Wird verlinkt mit den Armenien vs. Sign in or Register to watch live stream. Polak bohaterem HNK Gorica. Die ausschlagenden Spitzen der Graphik zeigen das Pressing der jeweiligen Mannschaft über den kompletten Spielverlauf. Sie finden uns in allen Stores in unterschiedlichen Sprachen als "SofaScore". Jest najlepszy w historii klubu. Die ausschlagenden Spitzen der Graphik zeigen das Pressing der jeweiligen Mannschaft über den kompletten Spielverlauf. Series 0 - 0. Durch die Nutzung eines komplexen Algorithmus ermöglichen wir dir einen Einblick in den Verlauf des Spiels.

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The Polish Jura , the Pieniny , and the Western Tatras consist of limestone , while the High Tatras , the Beskids , and the Karkonosze are made up mainly of granite and basalts.

The Polish Jura Chain has some of the oldest rock formation on the continent of Europe. Poland has 70 mountains over 2, metres 6, feet in elevation, all in the Tatras.

The Polish Tatras, which consist of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group of Poland and of the entire Carpathian range.

The lowest point in Poland — at 1. It is not a natural desert but results from human activity from the Middle Ages onwards. As waves and wind carry sand inland the dunes slowly move, at a rate of 3 to 10 metres 9.

The highest peak of the park is Rowokol metres or feet above sea level. The longest rivers are the Vistula Polish: The eastern Beskids are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea.

Poland's rivers have been used since early times for navigation. The Vikings , for example, traveled up the Vistula and the Oder in their longships.

With almost ten thousand closed bodies of water covering more than 1 hectare 2. In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes.

In addition to the lake districts in the north in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia , Lubuskie, and Greater Poland , there is also a large number of mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area.

Among the first lakes whose shores were settled are those in the Greater Polish Lake District. The stilt house settlement of Biskupin , occupied by more than one thousand residents, was founded before the 7th century BC by people of the Lusatian culture.

Lakes have always played an important role in Polish history and continue to be of great importance to today's modern Polish society.

The ancestors of today's Poles, the Polanie , built their first fortresses on islands in these lakes. Nowadays the Polish lakes provide a location for the pursuit of water sports such as yachting and wind-surfing.

For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been shaped by the continual movement of sand by currents and winds. The largest spits are Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Spit.

The coast line is varied also by Szczecin and Vistula Lagoons and a few lakes, e. Poland is the fourth most forested country in Europe.

Forests cover about The richness of Polish forest per SoEF statistics [ clarification needed ] is more than twice as high as European average with Germany and France at the top , containing 2.

Three more national parks are projected for Masuria , the Polish Jura, and the eastern Beskids. In addition, wetlands along lakes and rivers in central Poland are legally protected, as are coastal areas in the north.

There are over areas designated as landscape parks , along with numerous nature reserves and other protected areas e. Since Poland's accession to the European Union in , Polish agriculture has performed extremely well and the country has over two million private farms.

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic Ecoregions of the continental forest spanning Central and Northern European temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions as well as the Carpathian montane conifer forest.

In the forests there are game animals, such as red deer , roe deer and wild boar. Poland is the most important breeding ground for a variety of European migratory birds.

Both survived in Poland longer than anywhere else. The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west and becomes gradually warmer and continental towards the south and east.

Precipitation falls throughout the year, although, especially in the east, winter is drier than summer. The coldest region of Poland is in the northeast in the Podlaskie Voivodeship near the borders with Belarus and Lithuania.

The climate is affected by cold fronts which come from Scandinavia and Siberia. Poland is a representative democracy , with a president as a head of state , whose current constitution dates from Poland ranks in the top 20 percent of the most peaceful countries in the world, according to the Global Peace Index.

The government structure centers on the Council of Ministers , led by a prime minister. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm.

The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The current president is Andrzej Duda and the prime minister is Mateusz Morawiecki.

Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a member lower house Sejm and a member Senate Senat. The Sejm is elected under proportional representation according to the d'Hondt method , a method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems.

The Senat, on the other hand, is elected under the first-past-the-post voting method, with one senator being returned from each of the constituencies.

The National Assembly is formed on three occasions: To date only the first instance has occurred. The judicial branch plays an important role in decision-making.

The ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Polish citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.

The Constitution of Poland is the supreme law in contemporary Poland, and the Polish legal system is based on the principle of civil rights, governed by the code of Civil Law.

Historically, the most famous Polish legal act is the Constitution of 3 May Historian Norman Davies describes it as the first of its kind in Europe.

Primarily, it was designed to redress long-standing political defects of the federative Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and its Golden Liberty. Previously only the Henrician Articles signed by each of Poland's elected kings could perform the function of a set of basic laws.

The new Constitution introduced political equality between townspeople and the nobility szlachta , and placed the peasants under the protection of the government.

The Constitution abolished pernicious parliamentary institutions such as the liberum veto , which at one time had placed the sejm at the mercy of any deputy who might choose, or be bribed by an interest or foreign power, to have rescinded all the legislation that had been passed by that sejm.

The 3 May Constitution sought to supplant the existing anarchy fostered by some of the country's reactionary magnates , with a more egalitarian and democratic constitutional monarchy.

The adoption of the constitution was treated as a threat by Poland's neighbours. The Republic and Article 54 section II. Feminism in Poland started in the s in the age of the foreign Partitions.

Prior to the last Partition in , tax-paying females were allowed to take part in political life. Since , following the return to independence, all women could vote.

Poland was the 15th 12th sovereign country to introduce universal women's suffrage. Currently, in Poland abortion is allowed only in special circumstances, such as when the woman's life or health is endangered by the continuation of pregnancy, when the pregnancy is a result of a criminal act, or when the fetus is seriously malformed.

Also, Poland recognises gender change. Poland's current constitution was adopted by the National Assembly of Poland on 2 April , approved by a national referendum on 25 May , and came into effect on 17 October It guarantees a multi-party state, the freedoms of religion, speech and assembly, and specifically casts off many Communist ideals to create a ' free market economic system '.

It requires public officials to pursue ecologically sound public policy and acknowledges the inviolability of the home, the right to form trade unions, and to strike, whilst at the same time prohibiting the practices of forced medical experimentation, torture and corporal punishment.

In recent years, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other European nations and a large number of 'developing' countries.

As changes since the fall of Communism in have redrawn the map of Europe, Poland has tried to forge strong and mutually beneficial relationships with its seven new neighbours, this has notably included signing 'friendship treaties' to replace links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact.

Poland has forged a special relationships with Ukraine , [] with whom it co-hosted the UEFA Euro football tournament, in an effort to firmly anchor the country within the Western world and provide it with an alternative to aligning itself with the Russian Federation.

Despite many positive developments in the region, Poland has found itself in a position where it must seek to defend the rights of ethnic Poles living in the former Soviet Union ; this is particularly true of Belarus , where in the Lukashenko regime launched a campaign against the Polish ethnic minority.

Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union and has a grand total of 51 representatives in the European Parliament.

Ever since joining the union in , successive Polish governments have pursued policies to increase the country's role in European and regional affairs.

Poland's current voivodeships provinces are largely based on the country's historic regions, whereas those of the past two decades to had been centred on and named for individual cities.

Administrative authority at voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed voivode governor , an elected regional assembly sejmik and a voivodeship marshal, an executive elected by that assembly.

The voivodeships are subdivided into powiats often referred to in English as counties , and these are further divided into gminas also known as communes or municipalities.

Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland has 16 voivodeships, powiats including 66 cities with powiat status , and 2, gminas.

The Polish armed forces are composed of five branches: Plans call for the force, once fully active, to consist of 53, people who will be trained and equipped to counter potential hybrid warfare threats.

However, its commander-in-chief is the President of the Republic. The Polish army's size is estimated at around , soldiers The Polish Navy primarily operates in the Baltic Sea and conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the section of the Baltic under Polish sovereignty, as well as hydrographic measurements and research.

Also, the Polish Navy played a more international role as part of the invasion of Iraq , providing logistical support for the United States Navy.

The current position of the Polish Air Force is much the same; it has routinely taken part in Baltic Air Policing assignments, but otherwise, with the exception of a number of units serving in Afghanistan , has seen no active combat.

In , the FC Block 52 was chosen as the new general multi-role fighter for the air force, the first deliveries taking place in November The most important mission of the armed forces is the defence of Polish territorial integrity and Polish interests abroad.

Compulsory military service for men was discontinued in From , until conscription ended in , the mandatory service was nine months. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defensive nature as that of its NATO partners.

From to Poland was a large contributor to various United Nations peacekeeping missions. Currently, Poland's military is going through a significant modernization phase, which will be completed in Also, the army plans to modernize its existing inventory of main battle tanks , and update its stock of small arms.

In May the Ministry of National Defence has assured that the Polish army will be increased to , active personnel.

Poland has a highly developed system of law enforcement with a long history of effective policing by the State Police Service Policja.

The structure of law enforcement agencies within Poland is a multi-tier one, with the State Police providing criminal-investigative services, Municipal Police serving to maintain public order and a number of other specialized agencies, such as the Polish Border Guard , acting to fulfill their assigned missions.

In addition to these state services, private security companies are also common, although they possess no powers assigned to state agencies, such as, for example, the power to make an arrest or detain a suspect.

Emergency services in Poland consist of the emergency medical services , search and rescue units of the Polish Armed Forces and State Fire Service.

Emergency medical services in Poland are, unlike other services, provided for by local and regional government.

Since joining the European Union all of Poland's emergency services have been undergoing major restructuring and have, in the process, acquired large amounts of new equipment and staff.

In addition, the police and other agencies have been steadily replacing and modernising their fleets of vehicles. Poland's economy is considered to be one of the more resilient of the post-Communist countries and is one of the fastest growing within the EU.

It is an example of the transition from a centrally planned to a primarily market-based economy. The country's most successful exports include machinery, furniture, food products, clothing, shoes and cosmetics.

The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms have allowed the development of the private sector.

Also, several consumer rights organizations have become active in the country. Restructuring and privatisation of "sensitive sectors" such as coal, steel, rail transport and energy has been continuing since The Polish banking sector is the largest in the Central and Eastern European region, [] with They are regulated by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority.

During the transformation to a market-oriented economy, the government privatized several banks, recapitalized the rest, and introduced legal reforms that made the sector more competitive.

This has attracted a significant number of strategic foreign investors ICFI. Poland's banking sector has approximately 5 national banks, a network of nearly cooperative banks and 18 branches of foreign-owned banks.

Poland has a large number of private farms in its agricultural sector, with the potential to become a leading producer of food in the European Union.

The biggest money-makers abroad include smoked and fresh fish, fine chocolate, and dairy products, meats and specialty breads, [] with the exchange rate conducive to export growth.

Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment. Since the gradual opening of the European Union labor market from , Poland has had mass emigration of over 2.

Products and goods manufactured in Poland include: Poland is also one of the world's biggest producers of copper , silver and coal , as well as potatoes , rye , rapeseed , cabbage , apples , strawberries and ribes.

Poland is recognised as a regional economic leader within Central Europe, with nearly 40 percent of the biggest companies in the region by revenues as well as a high globalisation rate.

The economic transition in has resulted in a dynamic increase in the number and value of investments conducted by Polish corporations abroad.

Over a quarter of these companies have participated in a foreign project or joint venture , and 72 percent decided to continue foreign expansion.

According to reports made by the National Bank of Poland , the value of Polish foreign direct investments reached almost billion PLN at the end of The Central Statistical Office estimated that in there were around 1, Polish corporations with interests in 3, foreign entities.

Poland experienced an increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style.

The Polish capital Warsaw and its historical Old Town were entirely reconstructed after wartime destruction. Poland's main tourist offerings include outdoor activities such as skiing, sailing, mountain hiking and climbing, as well as agrotourism, sightseeing historical monuments.

The Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains lie in the extreme south-east. The electricity generation sector in Poland is largely fossil-fuel —based.

Many power plants nationwide use Poland's position as a major European exporter of coal to their advantage by continuing to use coal as the primary raw material in production of their energy.

In , Poland scored 48 out of states in the Energy Sustainability Index. All three of these companies are key constituents of the Warsaw Stock Exchange 's lead economic indexes.

Renewable forms of energy account for a smaller proportion of Poland's full energy generation capacity.

This is to be achieved mainly through the construction of wind farms and a number of hydroelectric stations. Poland has around ,,, m 3 of proven natural gas reserves and around 96,, barrels of proven oil reserves.

However, the small amounts of fossil fuels naturally occurring in Poland is insufficient to satisfy the full energy consumption needs of the population.

Therefore, the country is a net importer of oil and natural gas. Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail , road , marine shipping and air travel.

Positioned in Central Europe with its eastern and part of its northeastern border constituting the longest land border of the Schengen Area with the rest of Northern and Central Europe.

Since joining the EU in May , Poland has invested large amounts of public funds into modernization projects of its transport networks.

The country now has a developing network of highways , composed of express roads and motorways such as A1 , A2 , A4 , A6 , A8 , A In addition to these newly built roads, many local and regional roads are being fixed as part of a national programme to rebuild all roads in Poland.

Polish authorities maintain a program of improving operating speeds across the entire Polish rail network.

Additionally, in December , Poland began to implement high—speed rail routes connecting major Polish cities.

The Polish government has revealed that it intends to connect all major cities to a future high-speed rail network by Most interregional connections rail routes in Poland is operated by PKP Intercity , whilst regional trains are run by a number of operators, the largest of which is Przewozy Regionalne.

The air and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. LOT is the 28th largest European airline and the world's 12th oldest still in operation , established in from a merger of Aerolloyd and Aero Poland has begun preparations for a construction that can handle million passengers of the Central Communication Port.

Over the course of history, the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics. Copernicus' achievements and discoveries are considered the basis of Polish culture and cultural identity.

Poland's tertiary education institutions; traditional universities , as well as technical, medical, and economic institutions, employ around 61, researchers and members of staff.

There are around research and development institutes, with about 10, researchers. In total, there are around 91, scientists in Poland today.

In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing centre of mathematics. Other notable scientists from Poland include: Over 40 research and development centers and 4, researchers make Poland the biggest research and development hub in Central and Eastern Europe.

The service was dissolved during the foreign partitions in the 18th century. After regaining independence in , Poland saw the rapid development of the postal system as new services were introduced including money transfers , payment of pensions, delivery of magazines, and air mail.

During wars and national uprisings communication was provided mainly through the military authorities. At present, the service is a modern state-owned company that provides a number of standard and express delivery as well as home-delivery services.

With an estimated number of around 83, employees , [] Poczta Polska also has a personal tracking system for parcels. In the company adopted a strategy that assumes increasing revenues to 6.

Poland, with its 38,, inhabitants, has the eighth-largest population in Europe and the sixth-largest in the European Union.

It has a population density of inhabitants per square kilometer per square mile. In recent years, Poland's population has decreased due to an increase in emigration and a decline in the birth rate.

Since Poland's accession to the European Union on 1 May , a significant number of Poles have emigrated , primarily to the United Kingdom , Germany and Ireland in search of better work opportunities abroad.

The total fertility rate TFR in Poland was estimated in at 1. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages.

It is one of the official languages of the European Union. Until recent decades Russian was commonly learned as a second language, but after the Revolutions of has been replaced by English as the most common second language studied and spoken.

According to the Act of 6 January on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages , [] 16 other languages have officially recognized status of minority languages: Jewish and Romani minorities each have 2 minority languages recognized.

Languages having the status of ethnic minority's language are Karaim , Rusyn called Lemko in Poland and Tatar. Also, official recognition is granted to two Romani languages: Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma.

Official recognition of a language provides certain rights under conditions prescribed by the law: The Poles are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to Poland, who share a common ancestry, culture, history, religion and are native speakers of the Polish language, along with its various dialects.

The formation of the Polish identity and ethnicity can be traced to the 10th century when Duke Mieszko I politically unified the Slavic tribes of Polans , Mazovians , Slezans , Vistulans , Pomeranians , Lendians and others, [] [] which inhabited the area of central Europe between the Oder River in the west and the Bug River in the east, and between the Carpathian and Sudetes mountains in the south and the Baltic sea in the north, and then by accepting Christianity as the official state religion.

Following the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in , the country over the next two centuries contained many languages, cultures and religions.

When Poland regained its independence in , Poles constituted the majority of the population in the country, during the interwar period , with sizable Ukrainian, Belarusian, Jewish and German minorities.

Today, Poland is primarily inhabited by ethnic Poles. In the census , 37,, Other identities were reported by 88, people 0.

Since then, Poland has been a predominantly Catholic nation, however throughout its history, religious tolerance was an important part of the political culture.

In , the Statute of Kalisz , also known as a Charter of Jewish Liberties, granted Jews living in the Polish lands unprecedented legal rights not found anywhere in Europe.

Then in , the Warsaw Confederation marked the formal beginning of extensive religious freedoms granted to all faiths in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The act was not imposed by a king or consequence of war, but rather resulted from the actions of members of the Polish-Lithuanian society.

It was also influenced by the events of the French St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre , which prompted the Polish-Lithuanian nobility to see that no monarch would ever be able to carry out such reprehensible atrocities in Poland.

Also, in the 16th century, Anabaptists from the Netherlands and Germany settled in Poland—after being persecuted in Western Europe—and became known as the Vistula delta Mennonites.

There are also several thousand neopagans, some of whom are members of the Native Polish Church. He is the only Polish Pope to date.

Freedom of religion is now guaranteed by the statute of the Polish Constitution, [] enabling the emergence of additional denominations.

Orthodox pilgrims visit Mountain Grabarka near Grabarka-Klasztor. Poland's healthcare system is based on an all-inclusive insurance system.

State subsidised healthcare is available to all Polish citizens who are covered by this general health insurance program.

However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes exist nationwide. All medical service providers and hospitals in Poland are subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Health , which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.

In addition to these roles, the ministry is tasked with the maintenance of standards of hygiene and patient-care.

Hospitals in Poland are organised according to the regional administrative structure, resultantly most towns have their own hospital Szpital Miejski.

In , the Polish health-care industry experienced further transformation. Hospitals were given priority for refurbishment where necessary. In , the average life expectancy at birth was The Commission of National Education Komisja Edukacji Narodowej established in , was the world's first state ministry of education.

It is compulsory that children participate in one year of formal education before entering the 1st class at no later than 7 years of age.

Corporal punishment of children in schools is officially prohibited since before the partitions and criminalised since in schools as well as at home.

At the end of the 6th class when students are 13, students take a compulsory exam that will determine their acceptance and transition into a specific lower secondary school gimnazjum —middle school or junior high.

They will attend this school for three years during classes 7, 8, and 9. Students then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend.

There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum. In Poland, there are university-level institutions for the pursuit of higher education.

The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1,year history. With origins in the culture of the Proto-Slavs , over time Polish culture has been profoundly influenced by its interweaving ties with the Germanic , Latinate and Byzantine worlds as well as in continual dialog with the many other ethnic groups and minorities living in Poland.

In the 19th and 20th centuries the Polish focus on cultural advancement often took precedence over political and economic activity.

These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art, with all its complex nuances. Artists from Poland, including famous musicians like Chopin , Rubinstein , Paderewski or Penderecki and traditional, regionalized folk composers , create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as sung poetry and disco polo.

As of [update] , Poland is one of the few countries in Europe where rock and hip hop dominate over pop music, while all kinds of alternative music genres are encouraged.

Other early compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and God Is Born a coronation polonaise for Polish kings by an unknown composer , may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Nicholas of Radom , was born and lived in the 15th century.

Most of the compositions written were either liturgical music , or secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments.

At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise.

In the 19th century the most popular composers were: Alexandre Tansman lived in Paris but had strong connections with Poland. Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.

All of Chopin's works involve the piano and are technically demanding, emphasising nuance and expressive depth. It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century.

Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of Zakopane.

Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.

Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.

Since the fall of communism throughout Europe, Poland has become a major venue for large-scale music festivals, chief among which are the Open'er Festival , Opole Festival and Sopot Festival.

Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.

Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad.

Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme. Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.

Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.

Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St.

History has not been kind to Poland's architectural monuments. Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.

The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.

Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.

Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.

These traditional construction methods were utilized all the way up to the start of the 20th century, and gradually faded in the first decades when Poland's population experienced a demographic shift to urban dwelling away form the countryside.

The earliest Polish literature dates back to the 12th century, [] when Poland's official language was Latin. Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.

The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories. The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.

The sentence was allegedly uttered almost a hundred years earlier by a Bohemian settler, who expressed pity for his spouse's duty of grinding by the quern-stone.

Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.

Haller's Calendarium cracoviense , an astronomical wall calendar from , is Poland's oldest surviving print.

A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.

Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.

Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.

The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.

Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television.

In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope. This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view.

Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality.

Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri.

During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland. Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.

In the government established ' Film Polski ', a state-run film production and distribution organization, with director Aleksander Ford as the head of the company.

Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. TVP is Poland's public broadcasting corporation; about a third of its income comes from a broadcast receiver licence , while the rest is made through revenue from commercials and sponsorships.

Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country. Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.

Judgment , Observer , Layers of Fear and Cyberpunk Polish cuisine has evolved over the centuries to become very eclectic due to Poland's history.

Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian [] as well as Jewish , [] Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian , [] French and Italian culinary traditions.

Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety. The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals.

The world's first written mention of vodka originates from Poland. Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.

Volleyball and Association football are among the country's most popular sports, with a rich history of international competitions.

The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.

The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in The Polish men's national volleyball team is ranked as 3rd in the world.

He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars. Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider.

The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland. The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway, [] has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.

Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.

Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world.

Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.

Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.

Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.

This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time. The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles.

Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress. The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.

Established in , the retail store Reserved is Poland's best clothing store chain, operating over 1, retail shops in 19 countries. In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.

This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.

In , Faktorowicz invented the conjoined word "make-up" based on the verb phrase "to make up" one's face, which is now used as an alternative for "cosmetics".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation. For other uses, see Poland disambiguation.

Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union. Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland.

Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland. Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora.

List of cities and towns in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland.

Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism. Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland.

Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count. Zaloga and Richard Hook write that "by the war's end the Polish Army was the fourth largest contingent of the Allied coalition after the armed forces of the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom".

Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.

Throughout the war, Poland's position varied from the 2nd biggest Ally after the fall of France , when Polish army outnumbered the French to perhaps the 5th at the end of it after the US, Soviet Union, China and Britain.

The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished.

Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.

Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe. After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly.

The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance. Number and demographical-social structure.

Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. Retrieved 31 May The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism. Retrieved 9 September — via Google Books.

Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 12 August Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in As of December 31".

Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 15 September United Nations Development Programme.

A Concise History of Poland First ed. A History , Pimlico , p. Poland-Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

The price of freedom: Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 14 April — via Multishoring. Stephan Faris 27 November Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 November The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for Ghana and Ivory Coast , who had both made the previous three tournaments.

The draw was held on 1 December at Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia who were automatically assigned to position A1 and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4.

However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group.

Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February , this was increased to Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad.

For players named in the player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May , except for those involved in the UEFA Champions League Final played on 26 May.

On 29 March , FIFA released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees.

VAR had a significant impact in several games. Russia proposed the following host cities: The bid evaluation report stated: Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed.

In October , Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.

The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list.

Sepp Blatter stated in July that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa , where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".

They were satisfied with the progress. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium — the two largest stadiums in Russia — were used most, both hosting seven matches.

Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of match each.

Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games. Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament.

Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems.

Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre Accor Hotels and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk Starwood Hotels as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities.

The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7.

Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals.

Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw.

The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July. The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia.

At the start of the ceremony, Russian president Vladimir Putin gave a speech, welcoming the countries of the world to Russia and calling football a uniting force.

Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage.

Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico.

For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round. For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round.

For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards.

Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored.

All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament.

Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.

The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data.

Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country.

The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students.

A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The first phase of ticket sales started on 14 September , The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship.

A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches.

Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities.

Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media , who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".

The official match ball of the World Cup group stage was " Telstar 18 ", based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from It was introduced on 9 November After the group stage, "Telstar Mechta" was used for the knockout stage.

The word mechta Russian: The difference between Telstar 18 and Mechta is the red details on the design. Its music video was released on 8 June Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report.

The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, [] [] [] and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society.

Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the and World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. Garcia , a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations.

Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. On 3 June , the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the and World Cups.

In response to the March poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal , British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans.

The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility".

At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters.

Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised. FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true.

A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia. In February , Ukrainian rightsholder UA: PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup.

This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov.

Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar over alleged support of extremist groups.

Qatar is the home country of the region's rightsholder, beIN Sports. On 2 June , beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat , but with service to the latter restored later that day.

Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions.

On 12 July , FIFA stated that it "has engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests.

The elimination of the United States in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced especially among "casual" viewers interested in the US team , especially noting how much Fox paid for the rights, and that US games at the World Cup peaked at During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among US viewers factoring Hispanic and Latino Americans.

Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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